There is a small restaurant in Long Valley in California that has six sombreros hanging on the wall as part of their decorations. When management was asked about them, they knew nothing of their significance. In fact, they are so precise that a ship can be navigated across oceans by them. They aren’t “Mexican.” They are Portuguese, a gift of the Sea Peoples who had their ports in Portugal during the days of the glory of Carthage. Here is a break-down of the meaning of the major symbols.
The outer edge of the felt brim originally had twice 32 (64) holes for the binding. these were named by sailors (how the Portuguese/Spanish got to South America in the first place) according to the degree of movement from the four cardinal points, such as south by southeast, northwest (as in the northwest passage), and so on. After the sailors had been in South America for a period of time, the number was modified to 52 in favor of the local custom (after all, they weren’t sailors any more) of the calendar observance of the fire ceremony of that region during which they put out all their fires for 5 days every 52nd year and waited for runners to bring fire kindled by concentrating the sun’s rays through a crystal skull at the central city. This corrected their calendar to align with their tracking the constellation Plieades.
Just inside the 64 hole-points are 12 clusters of 4 contiguous circles, each representing the main constellation of one of the signs of the Zodiac (the word comes from a very ancient language and translates correctly as “the way.” It has nothing to do with animals). The 4 circles represent the 4 seasons.
Inside this is the common wind-rose used by sailors for thousands of years with the major points of north , south east and west on the headband and the degrees of divergence spread around the brim. North and south (top and bottom) are differentiated from east and west by the one-degree spread of the east-west lines as opposed to the single pointer to “true north” and “true south”.
The blue felt of the hat represents the sky, the gold thread is the color of the sun’s light, and the white represents daylight. Contrary to common conclusions, those aren’t horseshoes in the white section. They are the representation of the nodes of the moon, sometimes referred to as the “dragon’s head” and the “dragon’s tail.”
The two cords tied to the sides aren’t to hold the sombrero on, they are to be dropped through holes so that when the hat is pointed at the sun, they will cross the stick that is holding it up to give the trigonometric triangulation necessary to fix latitude and longitude, the original GPS positioning mechanism.
The two sides, east and west have three points north and three points south marked in gold threads. These are the location of the sun on the horizon at particular days on the calendar as it travels up and down the horizon during the year. This is the calendar. Time is determined by which star appears first on the eastern horizon at sunset and tracked by its travels across the sky at night, as it is determined by the sun’s progress during the daylight hours.
All of the other little dots, lines, sprays rectangles and such have equally precise meanings to the trained eye, which a person unfamiliar with the ancient desert and sea navigation would find boring.
The term “windrose” will be unfamiliar to most “land-lubbers.” We call it a compass today. You will see the same markings on what are called Irish cross, Celtic cross, or wheeled cross. These are found in every ancient sea-port location where the sea people traded, as it was their custom to bring their captain to shore for burial when he died at sea, and place a stone with this shape at the head of his grave. It had the same meaning as the R.I.P. inscription today, as the cross was the symbol of a safe harbor, friendly to foreign sailors and free of sailing (or land) hazards. They were also used in town squares where the locals had made it legal for itinerant merchants to set up temporary sales booths, free of charge, with water and sanitary facilities and corrals for their livestock to rest from their burdens for a few days. For more information on how the wheeled cross works, look at the works of Crichton Miller https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wcmMW6E82qY (you may want to skip some of the nonsense people have tacked onto his work, though).
The cross was also used along roads to mark safe spots to stop for the night, sources of water near-by, and other conveniences that travelers would need on their journey. When religion took on the form of land-based organization that allowed them to hold land, they marked each corner of it with a tall cross and protected anyone who came onto their land, making it a safe haven or refuge for anyone needing sanctuary. This practice originally started in Israel with its “safe cities” practice that they brought with them from Egypt where the temples had the same meaning. The sea peoples adopted it during the days of King Hiram of Tyre, who was close friends with both King David and King Solomon, with whom he partnered in sea trade to areas formerly not served by their ships.
So if you want to sail from the Spanish peninsula to the New World, grab your sombrero and board your ship…