The sun is the basis of the calendar. This is confirmed by four factors: the times and dates given in the books of Enoch and Jubilees; the construction of the temple; the sundial of Ahaz; and the necessity of synchronizing all moon-based calendars with the sun because of the seasonal changes, which are ruled by the sun, not the moon.
The number of days in the year have changed at least one times in recorded history, in the days of Hezekiah when the sun returned on the steps of the sun dial of Ahaz. It may have changed during Joshua’s long day as well, but if so, it was not recorded in religious literature. This shift can be attributed to one of several factors. The first, and most probable, is the rate of spin of the earth; the second, and possible, is the location of the earth in relation to the sun; the third is the location of the sun itself.
Starting with the third, the location of the sun, there is a theory adrift that the long day of JAHsuha was the result of the sun moving from its place to follow the rotation of the earth during these 14 or so hours. One of the proofs cited is the elongated orbits of the planets; another is the law of fluid motions, stating that if the earth were stopped in its rotation, the oceans would continue their motions, covering the land areas. However, if this had happened, the solar winds would have also changed, creating problems within its inner circle of planets. There is no evidence that this happened.
The second possibility, the location of the earth in relation to the sun, would have changed earth’s exposure to the heat of the sun. If the earth moved closer to the sun, the atmosphere would have heated more; and if it had moved away from the sun, it would have cooled, or so says logic. This does not hold water, as the temperature on earth has been proven to be controlled by the flares on the sun’s surface more than any other factor. During the times of little or no flare activity, ice ages have been documented; while during times of solar flare activity, the ice areas have receded.
The first possibility, the spin of the earth, is the most probable. Should the spin rate slow down, the days would become longer, and there would be fewer in the year. Should the spin rate speed up, there would be more days in the year, assuming that the orbit of the earth remains the same. This, however is a dangerous assumption, and one that cannot be made, as the earth orbit did very likely elongate in the days of Noah’s flood.
The Calendar of the Davidic Kings
There were 360 day in the year after the flood of Noah. We have no record of the days in the year before, although there are traditions that say there were 10 months of 30 days each. In the days of Noah, the year was divided into twelve 30-day months for a total of 360 days. This total is still used for figuring years in prophetic writings. This configuration remained in effect until the days of Hezekiah.
During Hezekiah’s reign, in the year 701 BCE, he was given a sign of the shadow on the steps of the sun dial of Ahaz going back 10 steps. When this occurred, the year lengthened to 365.2422 days, and Hezekiah had his astronomers adjust the calendar to accommodate them. The other nations also added 5 days to their year at that time, usually at the end of the standard year. Hezekiah’s men inserted them to a mathematical accuracy of no error in over 10,000 years by the addition of days within the year, preserving the seasons, and weeks within the quarters, preserving the accuracy. In doing this, they stayed within five days of each actual equinox and solstice, using the irregular orbit of the earth as a guide, for the actual year varies from 360 days to 374 days in length because of its elliptical erratic orbit around the sun.
At the time this calendar was corrected, Hezekiah also had a golden mirror attached to the Golden Gate east of the temple, from which it took its name in later years. This gate had originally been constructed in such a way that it was tall enough to block all light into the inner chamber at dawn, except for a small opening through which light could pass into the inner chamber of the temple only on sunrise of the Spring equinox. With the change in the number of days, the light no longer traced its original course, but was a few degrees off. The priests carefully charted this, and placed the mirror to bend the beam of light so that it followed its original course. We know that the second temple foundation was corrected by six degrees to accommodate this difference.
Had the moon calendar been in effect during this time, these facts would not only not be necessary, they would have been contradictory. It is true that Solomon, in his later years, changed the civil calendar to the moon-based one which originated in Babylon, but the temple priests continued to track astronomical activities as part of their responsibilities. Solomon did not interrupt this work. Further, at that time the moon had a 30-day cycle that corresponded to the sun, therefore there was no conflict until the year lengthened. When the year lengthened in 701 BCE, the moon changed to a 29.5 day orbit, 11 days per year shorter than the sun year, causing major confusion.
It should be noted at this point that the moon calendar used today by the Hebrews is not the one used anciently. It is a construct made by Hillel when he was given the prophecy of the captivity, in order for the captives to be able to fix the holy days. No one knows whether it is accurate or not, although Hillel himself said that it would become less accurate over time, but that the Messiah would correct the deficiency when he arrived.
Books of Enoch and Jubilees
Although supposedly written before the flood, these books are now held to be written after the days of Hezekiah. Both may be true in that the original was written thousands of years ago, then updated after each change in the number of days in the year. They accurately describe the sun calendar applicable today. It is entirely possible that they did actually have copies of the original works, as Abraham had been given copies by Shem, and had passed them on to Jacob, who passed them on to Levi, who brought them out of Egypt during the Exodus. It would have been a logical move to have simply made new copies, reflecting the changes in the movements of the heavens, but retaining the ancient names, places, and text elsewhere. There is a very good description of the great flood in the book of Jubilees chapter 5:
|Jubilee||Week||Year||Month||Day||Events of the book of Jubilees 5:21-32|
|22||5||5||Noah ordered to make ark|
|22||5||6||2||1||Started loading ark|
|22||5||6||2||16||Ended loading ark|
|22||5||6||2||17||Ark shut and flood started|
|22||5||6||7||17||“waters stayed on earth 5 months, which amounts to 150 days…”|
|22||5||7||7||Autumn||v. 29: “in the NAMED day of the seventh month all the mouths of the peep were opened and th ewaters began to go down…”|
|22||5||7||2||27||Noah came out of ark|
Here we see that the length of the time the waters remained on the earth before they began to recede was “five months, which amounts to 150 days.” But the five months include one NAMED day which is NOT COUNTED in the number, the day of Summer, day 0 of the third month. In verse 29, it says “in the NAMED day of the seventh month all the mouths of the deep were opened and the waters began to go down…” This named day we call Autumn, and it is inserted before the first day of the seventh month. Because these days are named, THEY ARE NOT COUNTED IN THE MATHEMATICS OF THE MONTHS. This clearly shows that a calendar of 360 NUMBERED days and four NAMED days, which were not counted, was in effect during the days of Noah. We do not have any record of the inserted WEEKS that the astronomers working for King Hezekiah of Judah are recorded as having devised in 701 BCE as having been in effect at this time. It also clearly depicts a calendar based on the sun, not the moon, and is based on a count of sevens. As a matter if interest, the date of the flood according to this calculation would have been:
22 Jubilees = 22 x 50 = 1100 years
5 weeks = 5 x 7 = 35 years
6th year = 5 complete 5 years
Total 1140 After Creation, or 2860 BCE, or 4,860 years ago
2 months and 17 days = 17 April, 2860 BCE
Within the book of Jubilees, it is written that men would lose sight of the named days, and would err on this account.
Ancient records show that the flood in the days of Noah occurred during the closest fly-by of Mars that has ever occurred. These close encounters of the deadly kind were tracked to have occurred every 108 years, like clockwork, disrupting routines and killing many people, until Venus fell from its high orbit and Mars lost a battle with it, sending it into its present-day benign orbit. Venus was documented to have been ejected from Jupiter at its dark spot on such a trajectory that its orbit was high in the sky, and crossed the ecliptic. It is possible that Venus and Mars had a brush-up when Venus was coming through the ecliptic as Mars was passing, putting them both into new orbits.
It is well documented in history that the moon-based calendar was developed by the court of Semiramis during her reign in Babylon, and was also associated with the times for human sacrifice in her honor. We know that the Israelites learned this system of worship in Egypt, as it was the official religion there. We know that they brought their gods out of Egypt with them, for they are chided by the Most High God for doing so in the holy writings. It would be no stretch, then, to assume that those practicing this worship would also use the moon calendar for the setting of their days of sacrifice, which in later times were held in the deep valley adjacent to the temple.
We are also told that “for the overspreading of abomination” the nation was taken away. The word “abomination” is used many times in connection with idol worship – and all idols go back to Semiramis and her family – therefore it is reasonable to assume that the underground religion of Semiramis grew at a rapid pace after the Israelites settled in the land. Jezebel was able to make it the state religion during her tenure as Queen in Northern Israel; and when the Romans captured Jerusalem they dragged the cherubim from the holy of holies through the streets announcing “this is what the Hebrews worship.” The cherubim they displayed were copulating, whereas those made by Solomon stood two wing-spans apart, with each cherub having one wing touching a wall and the other touching the wing of the matching cherub, and all four wings were extended full-length laterally.
The Sun Dial of Ahaz
The mention of this sun dial is of great interest, because it serves both as a clock and a calendar. It was constructed in such a manner that a long slender column cast a shadow, and this shadow fell on steps leading up to the platform on which the column was mounted. The height of the column was such that the end of the shadow passed each step on the one side as it shortened toward noon, then passed each step on the other side as it lengthened toward night. The other peculiarity of this device is that the location on the step told the month in which the shadow was located. This was possible because the sun moves north to its furtherest point during Winter, then returns to its southern-most point at the heart of Summer.
If a moon-based calendar was in use, this would be rediculous, as the two would be out of synchronization by eleven days at the end of the year. The sun dial of Ahaz was, by all accounts, a sun-based calendar as well as a clock. There are several similar devices in museums in Israel today.
The Calendar and Noah
Why not use the information in Genesis 6 through 8 as a basis for setting the calendar at 360 days? Simply because the evidence is not there.
|Gen 7:11||deep broken up||600 yr, 2 mo, 17 day|
|Gen 7:24||waters prevailed||150 days||150 days|
|Gen 8:4||ark rested||7 mo 17 day|
|Gen 8:5||tops of mountains seen||10 mo 1 day|
|Gen 8:13||waters dried, covering removed from ark||601 yr, 1 mo, 1 day|
|Gen 8:14||earth was dried||2 mo 27 day|
|Gen 8:16||ordered to leave ark||2 mo 27 day|
As this table shows, the only place where days are counted, there is no corresponding reference to actual calendar dates. There is no justification for assuming that the 150 days are associated with any calendar dates listed in Genesis in this particular account. Many assume that because 150 days is divided by 30 without a remainder, it means that there were five months of 30 days each implied by the number of days. If this is true, why did the author not simply state five months? Nowhere in the entire episode does it tell us that there are 30 days in the month, or even that there are 12 months in Noah’s year. Tradition says that there were 10 months in the year. We find that when Eleazer asked to take Rebecca back immediately, her mother asked that she stay “a year, 10 months.” Any mathematical manipulation of the data in Genesis is assuming the unknown, which is against logic.
Moon Calendar Corrections
Every society that uses a calendar based on the moon must make corrections after short lengths of time. The Chinese moon calendar now has the Spring festival falling in very early winter, not a propitious time for planting crops. The Hebrew moon calendar must add additional months on a 19-year cycle, and even then no one is sure where the starting point should be. (The starting point of every sun calendar is the Spring equinox, very easy to determine.) The nations that have tried to use moon-based calendars have abandoned them because of their inaccuracies, and their inability to predict the agricultural cycles, even in the face of having to adopt the calendar of a hated enemy. The only moon-based calendars in use today are the ones used for religious ceremonies, such as was the case when it was devised for Semiramis. These are the cultures in which her politics dominated in their early settlements, including China, to which she sent trading missions who basically gained control of the finances of the country through the ability to control the fluctuation of the currency.
What Are Our Proofs of a Sun-Based Calendar?
Our witnesses are the book of Jubilees; the book of Enoch; the construction of the temple and the Golden Gate, with its mirror; the sun dial of Ahaz; the control of the agricultural cycle by the sun; and the inaccuracies of the moon-based calendar which lacks an anchor, or fixed starting point without the Spring Equinox. All night-oriented anchors move with the heavens, which move so rapidly that the star marking Arcturus’s head 4,000 years ago is now in his knees, and the Pole Star has changed three times.
These proofs do not take into consideration the observatories found in many ancient cultures from the Mexican temples of South America in which a gold plate was fixed over the altar, to the American southwest, where there are caves with carved crevices, to the highlands of Scotland, to the interior of China, where there are beams of light that strike a marked point only on the Spring equinox of the sun.
A much more in-depth listing of the proofs is in process as a book. It will take that much space to do the subject justice because of the amount of data available to those who know where to look.