Ahmed Osman was a researcher and writer active in the 1980s concerning the ancient personages whose lives are documented in the Old Testament. He gives various translated passages of ancient Egyptian texts in his books, some of which are extremely interesting to a student of the Qumran calendar concerning its antiquity.
In his book, STRANGER IN THE VALLEY OF THE KINGS, on page 110, Osman quotes, “It begins like this: ‘Year 5, second month of summer, day 9, His Majesty passed the fortress of Zaru…'”.
There are actually three pointers to the sun-based calendar that we have named the “Qumran calendar” for convenient identification.
First, “Year 5,”: we are not told year 5 of what method of counting. Is it the 5th year of the king’s reign, or the 5th year in the week of the current Jubilee cycle? Pull this document up and look at the matrix of counting in the Qumran calendar.
This file is 76 pages long and covers the entire 6,000 year period from when kingship was given to Noah after the flood to the year 2300. Note that there are seven nested cycles in the Qumran calendar. They are:
- The year (as we know it today);
- The Land Sabbaths, the 7th year in each cycle of 50 years, when 1 week is added into the year.
- The Jubilee, the 50th year of the cycle, when 2 weeks are added into the year.
- The 350th year, when only 1 week is added into the year.
- The 700th year, when only 1 week is added into the year.
- The 3,500th year.
- The 7,000th year.
These are the sub-cycles in a cycle of 24,000 years of the precession, the traveling backwards of the Zodiac during our solar system’s orbit around the star Sirius. The various longer cycle counts do not take into consideration the speed with which the orbit makes the turns at each end of the elliptical orbit. According to the Yuga cycles of India, there is yet a longer cycle of 4 quarters, each identified with a metal: the Golden Age, the Silver Age, the Copper (or Bronze) Age, and the Iron Age (which we are just exiting now). The documentation of the Qumran calendar does not go into those longer ages, so no comments will be made beyond the note that they are said to be of unequal length.
The second indication that the calendar found in Qumran is being used is the phrase “second month of Summer”. The Qumran calendar has 4 seasons, each with 3 months and 1 named day. Here the season of Summer is identified, with the second month being named. All calendars started with the Spring equinox before Pope Gregory 13th, so we know that the count of raw months would be 5 if the months were not divided into seasons. The Qumran calendar is the only one that has that distinction of seasons.
“Day 9”. The day carries its number as it’s name, another distinction of the Qumran calendar that Julius Caesar carried over into his calendar in his attempt to reinstate the ancient sun-based calendar in his realm, supplanting the moon-based calendar that was wreaking such havoc in the agricultural world.
That was the first instance of use of the Qumran calendar mentioned by Osman. The next one was on page 111, “Year 11, third month of the first season, day 1, under the majesty of…”. Again, the scribe names the season as being the first, and calls the month by its number, “third”, another distinction of the Qumran calendar. The months are not named as in the Gregorian calendar of January, February, and so forth, but are identified by their number, or count. There are three months in each season, first, second and third.
The next reference is in the same paragraph. “His majesty celebrated the feast of the lake, in the third month of the first season, day 16, when…” The same dating pattern is used.
The next reference is on page 112. “…Year 400, 4th month of the third season, day 4, of the King…” Here we see that the first reference, 400, is identified as “of the king…”, but the “4th month of the third season ” tips us off to the use of only 3 seasons in the ancient Egyptian calendar. Three item four covers the 12-month year, so the number of days in each month remains 30, but the number of months is four rather than three. This tips us off to the dating as being before the “great earthquake in the days of Uzza” spoken by the prophets of the Old Testament.
That earthquake was a rending of the earth’s crust in response to some catastrophic event that also caused the length of the year to increase. We know that King Hezekiah was the last of the Hebrew kings to have the calendar updated, and it became necessary after this earthquake for this reason. The math suggests that this was the time when the extra quarter-day became necessary, but the texts tell us that Egypt and several other nations had to add 5.2422 days to their calendar, indicating that the legend that they were added at the time of the flood was an invention of later scribes. The truth will not be known until more hard data comes to hand. What is known is that the earth’s orbit has been expanding for hundreds of years, and is prophesied to expand again in the days predicted in the Book of Revelation, when three earthquakes will level every mountain on earth, change the climate, and change the length of earth’s orbit again, making the current calendar obsolete.